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Background: The Revised Hierarchical Model suggests FL vocabulary acquisition is mediated and enhanced by native language vocabulary knowledge (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). The PSE, based on Paivio’s dual coding theory, holds that pictures are remembered better than words due to being encoded by both verbal and pictorial codes (Paivio & Csapo, 1973). Mixed evidence exists regarding whether the PSE obtains in FL vocabulary learning (Carpenter & Olson, 2012). Hockley (2008) found that the PSE for associative recognition occurs even when picture pairings are presented as words at test. Current Study: The present study seeks to replicate and extend the investigation of the PSE for FL learning. Experiment 1 manipulated study modality only (picture vs. word). Experiment 2 manipulated both study (picture vs. word) and test (picture vs. word) modality.
Pinzone, Marie, "How Study and Test Formats Impact Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning: Pictures vs. Words" (2022). Celebration of Scholarship 2022. 9.