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Background: The Revised Hierarchical Model suggests FL vocabulary acquisition is mediated and enhanced by native language vocabulary knowledge (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). The PSE, based on Paivio’s dual coding theory, holds that pictures are remembered better than words due to being encoded by both verbal and pictorial codes (Paivio & Csapo, 1973). Mixed evidence exists regarding whether the PSE obtains in FL vocabulary learning (Carpenter & Olson, 2012). Hockley (2008) found that the PSE for associative recognition occurs even when picture pairings are presented as words at test. Current Study: The present study seeks to replicate and extend the investigation of the PSE for FL learning. Experiment 1 manipulated study modality only (picture vs. word). Experiment 2 manipulated both study (picture vs. word) and test (picture vs. word) modality.

Publication Date

Spring 2022


Advised by Dr. Angie Canda, Department of Psychology

How Study and Test Formats Impact Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning:  Pictures vs. Words

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Psychology Commons