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The taxonomy of cyanobacteria has advanced quickly with the use of molecular methods in combination with well-defined morphological and ecological characters. Using this approach, many taxonomical changes have occurred in the Synechococcales and Oscillatoriales, with the description of new families, genera and species. Here we present the study of four cyanobacterial strains from the Bank of Algae and Cyanobacteria of the Azores (BACA) culture collection, all isolated from the Azores Archipelago. The strains were genetically characterized through the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, as well as morphologically by light and transmission electron microscopy. One of the strains presented a high genetic divergence from known genera of Synechococcales and was described as Venetifunis florensis gen. & sp. nov. (Trichocoleusaceae, Cyanobacteria). The remaining three strains were found to be new species of the genera Albertania, Kovacikia and Pegethrix. Venetifunis florensis was isolated from the shores of Lake Rasa in Flores Island, Kovacikia atmophytica sp. nov. is a new species mainly distinguished genetically from other Kovacikia species from Terceira Island. Albertania obscura sp. nov. was isolated from inside a volcanic cave in Terceira Island and is distinct both morphologically and genetically from the already described species. Pegethrix atlantica sp. nov. is a new morphologically and genetically different species isolated from São Miguel Island. The description of these new taxa increases the biogeographic knowledge of the four mentioned cyanobacterial genera to remote oceanic islands and new terrestrial habitats.

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