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A total of 48 strains of thin, filamentous cyanobacteria in Synechococcales were studied by sequencing 16S rRNA and rpo C1 sequence fragments. We also carefully characterized a subset of these by morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene data using Bayesian inference of a large Synechococcales alignment (345 OTU’s) was in agreement with the phylogeny based on the rpo C1 gene for 59 OTU’s. Both indicated that the large family-level grouping formerly classified as the Leptolyngbyaceae could be further divided into four family-level clades. Two of these family-level clades have been recognized previously as Leptolyngbyaceae and Prochlorotrichaceae. Oculatellaceae fam. nov. and Trichocoleaceae fam. nov. are proposed for the other two families. The Oculatellaceae was studied in greater detail, and six new genera containing 14 species were characterized and named. These new taxa are: Pegethrix botrychoides , P. olivacea, P. convoluta , P. indistincta , Drouetiella lurida , D. hepatica , D. fasciculata , Cartusia fontana , Tildeniella torsiva , T. nuda , Komarkovaea angustata , Kaiparowitsia implicata , Timaviella obliquedivisa , and T. radians .

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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