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Six strains of Cyanobacteria sampled in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest and one strain from Kauai, Hawaii, were studied using morphological and molecular approaches, including 16S rRNA gene phylogenies and 16S–23S ITS secondary structures, and are herein described as Komarekilla atlantica gen. et sp. nov.. Morphologically they are similar to Nostoc, Desmonostoc, Halotia, and Mojavia and indistinguishable from Chlorogloeopsis. The parsimony and Bayesian phylogenies of the 16S rDNA show that these strains are close to nostocacean strains, in strongly supported clades and separated from all other genera. The secondary structures of the 16S–23S ITS were very consistent between strains of K. atlantica, but distinctly different from structures in other close taxa. Of special note, the Hawaiian strain of K. atlantica had 16S sequence identities of 99.5– 100% to the Brazilian strains, and 16S–23S ITS sequence identities of 99.4–99.8% to the Brazilian strains, and consequently likely represents a very recent introduction of the species to Kauai from South America, the geographic source of many of the non–native plants in the Hawaiian Archipelago.